Related Research and Selected Relevant Literature

mRNA vaccines

Stuart, L M. 2021. In Gratitude for mRNA Vaccines. N Engl J Med. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcibr2111445

Dolgin. E. 2021. The tangled history of mRNA vaccines. Nature 597, 318-324.

Bozkurt B,Kamat I,Hotez P J. 2021. Myocarditis With COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines. Circulation 144(6):471–484.

Lazaros, G, Klein, A. et al. 2021. The Novel Platform of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines and Myocarditis: Clues into the Potential Underlying Mechanism. Vaccine, 39(35), 4925–4927.


Schmidt, A, Peters, S, Knaus, A et al. 2021. TBK1 and TNFRSF13B mutations and an autoinflammatory disease in a child with lethal COVID-19. Nature, npj Genom. Med. 6, 55.

Decout, A., Katz, J.D., Venkatraman, S. et al. 2021. The cGAS–STING pathway as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. Nat Rev Immunol 21, 548–569.

Hertzog J, Rehwinkel J. 2020. Regulation and inhibition of the DNA sensor cGAS. EMBO Rep. 21(12):e51345. doi: 10.15252/embr.202051345.

Hasan M, Yan N. 2016. Therapeutic potential of targeting TBK1 in autoimmune diseases and interferonopathies. Pharmacol Res. 111:336-342. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.04.008.

Li, Y, Wilson, HL, Kiss-Toth, E. 2017. Regulating STING in health and disease. J Inflamm 14, 11.

Chin AC. 2019. Neuroinflammation and the cGAS-STING pathway. J Neurophysiol. 121(4):1087-1091. doi: 10.1152/jn.00848.2018.

Louis, C, Burns, C, & Wicks, I. 2018. TANK-Binding Kinase 1-Dependent Responses in Health and Autoimmunity. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 434.

Motwani, M, Pesiridis, S & Fitzgerald, KA. 2019. DNA sensing by the cGAS–STING pathway in health and disease Nat Rev Genet 20, 657–674.

Oligonucleotides (Synthetic RNAs)

Junt T, Barchet W. 2015. Translating nucleic acid-sensing pathways into therapies. Nat Rev Immunol. 15(9):529-44. doi: 10.1038/nri3875.

Roberts, T.C., Langer, R. & Wood, M.J.A. Advances in oligonucleotide drug delivery. Nat Rev Drug Discov 19, 673–694 (2020).

Li Q, Cao Y, Dang C, Han B, Han R, Ma H, Hao J, Wang L. 2020. Inhibition of double-strand DNA-sensing cGAS ameliorates brain injury after ischemic stroke. EMBO Mol Med.;12(4):e11002. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201911002.

Wang F, Zuroske T, Watts JK. 2020. RNA therapeutics on the rise. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 19, 441-442 (2020). doi:

Feng, Y, & Chao, W. 2011. Toll-like receptors and myocardial inflammation. International journal of inflammation, 2011, 170352.